A Spotlight on Two Spirit Elders and Elder Justice Facts

November 2021 | National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative, University of North Dakota, Keck School of Medicine of USC, National Center on Elder Abuse, SAGE National Resoure Center on LGBT Aging

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“Historical trauma profoundly affects health outcomes for all AI/ANs, but even more so among Two-Spirit elders. Many Two-Spirit elders have survived state-sanctioned violence and federal policies such as the establishment of Christian residential schools, which sought to impose rigid gender norms and familial structures that they were not accustomed to”

Based on findings from the Two Spirit Elders Resource and Information Guide.